### Korean Listening Exercise - Numbers and Counting II

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The sentences below are also found in Nouns - Numbers and Counting.

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Native Korean numerals [Counting, Age and Hours]

The basic numbering system of the native Korean numerals is the same as that of the Sino-Korean numerals. However, in addition to one to ten, there is a need to learn the special pronunciations of tens, i.e. 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90.

From 100, the pronunciation is the same as the Sino-Korean numerals we've looked at above. [hundred (100) = 백, thousand (1000) = 천, ten thousand (10000) = 만]

• 1 = 하나
• 2 = 둘
• 3 = 셋
• 4 = 넷
• 5 = 다섯
• 6 = 여섯
• 7 = 일곱
• 8 = 여덟
• 9 = 아홉
• 10 = 열
• 11 = 열 하나
• 12 = 열 둘
• 13 = 열 셋
• 17 = 열 일곱
• 20 = 스물
• 21 = 스물 하나
• 22 = 스물 둘
• 23 = 스물 셋
• 30 = 서른
• 40 = 마흔
• 50 = 쉰
• 55 = 쉰 다섯
• 60 = 예순
• 70 = 일흔
• 75 = 일흔 다섯 [70 + 5 → 일흔 + 다섯 = 일흔다섯]
• 80 = 여든
• 90 = 아흔
• 100 = 백
• 189 = 백 여든 아홉 [100 + 80 + 9  백 + 여든 + 아홉 = 백여든아홉]

Below are the examples of how the native Korean numerals are used in counting, age and hours.

[Counting]

The native Korean numerals are used for counting, e.g. the number of people in a class, the number of cars in a car park, the numbers of apples on an apple tree, the numbers of pencils or pens on a desk, etc.

• 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 ... = 하나, 둘, 셋, 넷, 다섯, ...

When counting, we use distinctive identifier words called counters. Each kind of object (or person for that matter) has their own counter to distinguish them from other kinds. This counter system is a bit like the system found in English, i.e. 3 cups of juice, 5 glasses of water. However, the Korean counting system extends to every object.

For example,

• three cups of juice = 주스 세
• five glasses of water = 물 다섯
• six people = 여섯명 (사람)
• five cars = 차 다섯
• three apples = 사과 세
• two pencils = 연필 두자루
• four books = 책 네권
• ten roses = 장미 열송이

Listed below are some of the most common counters used in counting.

• 명 = people
• 마리 = animals
• 대 = cars
• 개 = objects (this is very widely used for any inanimate objects)
• 자루 = long, lean objects
• 그루 = trees
• 송이 = flowers
• 켤레 = shoes
• 장 = paper
• 권 = books
• 살 = age
• 층 = floor [The Sino-Korean numerals are used for counting the number of floors, i.e. the first floor = 일층, the second floor = 이층, and the eighth floor = 팔층]

Please also note that 하나 becomes 한, and the final consonant of each of 둘, 셋, 넷 and 스물 is omitted when they are attached to counters. For example,
• (물) 한잔 = a glass of water (NOT 하나잔)
• (종이) 두장 = two pieces of paper (NOT 둘장)
• (신발) 세켤레 = three pairs of shoes (NOT 셋켤레)
• (사람) 네명 = four people (NOT 넷명)
• (나이) 스무살 = twenty (years of age) (NOT 스물살)

The counters work in a similar way to some of the counter words in English, e.g. 장 is similar to 'pieces' and 켤레 is similar to 'pairs'.

[Age]

As we've looked at above, the counter, 살, is attached to years of age. For example:

• 1 = 한살
• 2 = 두살
• 3 = 세살
• 4 = 네살
• 5 = 다섯살
• 7 = 일곱살
• 10 = 열살
• 11 = 열한살
• 12 = 열두살
• 13 = 열세살
• 17 = 열일곱살
• 20 = 스무살
• 24 = 스물 네살
• 32 = 서른 두살
• 58 = 쉰 여덟살

[Hours]

The native Korean numerals are also used for 'hours' but not for 'minutes' which use the Sino-Korean numerals.

• 10:25 am → 오전 10시 25분 = 오전 시 이십오분
• 7:30 pm → 오후 7시 30분 = 오후 일곱시 삼십분 or 오후 일곱시 반 (반 means 'a half')
10시간 = 열시간 = 10 hours
10시 = 열시 = 10 o'clock

[Months]
• 한달 = 1 month
• 두달 = 2 months
• 세달 = 3 months
• 네달 = 4 months
• 다섯달 = 5 months
• 여섯달 = 6 months
• 일곱달 = 7 months
• 여덞달 = 8 months
• 아홉달 = 9 months
• 열달 = 10 months

1월 = 일월 = January
2월 = 이월 = February
3월 = 삼월 = March
4월 = 사월 = April
5월 = 오월 = May
6월 = 유월 = June
7월 = 칠월 = July
8월 = 팔월 = August
9월 = 구월 = September
10월 = 시월 = October
11월 = 십일월 = November
12월 = 십이월 = December

Example sentences
• 2(두)달 동안 학교를 다니고 2(이)주동안 방학을 했다 = I went to school for 2 months and had a break(holidays) for 2 weeks.

• 우리 학교는 3(삼)월에 시작해 = Our school starts in March.