거든요 is used as a statement in which you give reasons / explanations for what you do or did.
- 하거든요 = Because (I) do
- 거든요 is a polite spoken form
- 거든 is a informal spoken form (however, if 거든 is used in the middle of a sentence (i.e. as a conjunction, linking two sentences), it means 'if')
- 벌써 왔어? = You came (back) already?
- 줄이 너무 길었거든. 그래서 그냥 왔어 = Because the queue was too long. So I just came (back).
- 줄이 너무 길거든, 그냥 와 = If the queue is too long, just come (back).
Take 다 off verbs/adjectives and add 거든요.
- 하다 → 하거든요 = Because (I) do
- 했다 → 했거든요 = Because (I) did
- 먹었거든요 = Because (I) ate
- 가거든요 = Because (I) go
- 갔거든요 = Because (I) went
- 왔거든요 = Because (he) came
- 많았거든요 = Because (there) were many
- 배고팠거든요 = Because (I) was hungry
- 빠르거든요 = Because (it's) fast
- 맛있거든요 = Because (it's) delicious
- 아침 안 먹어요? = Don't you have breakfast?
- 네, 어제 저녁을 너무 많이 먹었거든요. = Yeah no, (because) I ate too much for dinner last night.
Note: 네 means 'yes.' 네 is used when you agree with the statement of the questioner.
- Don't you have breakfast? 네. (Yeah, I won't have breakfast)
Although in English, we say 'yes' to a negative question to mean a positive answer, 'no' is used in Korean to mean a positive answer (i.e. 'no' is used to mean a 'double negative' (= positive)).
- Don't you have breakfast? Yes, I'll have breakfast (in English)
- Don't you have breakfast? 아뇨, 먹을 거에요 = No, I will have breakfast (in Korean)
아뇨 is a contracted form of 아니오 which means 'no.'
- 새 노트북 샀네요? = (Hey,) you bought a new laptop
- 네, 예전 노트북은 너무 느렸거든요. 그래서 새 노트북 샀어요 = Yeah, (because) the laptop I had before was too slow. So I bought a new laptop.
- 여기 레스토랑 음식이 진짜 맛있거든. 여기서 먹을래? = (Because) this restaurant's food is really delicious. Shall we eat here?
- 그래, 좋지. = Yeah, I'd like to.
- 피곤해 보여요 = You look tired
- 어제 잠을 많이 못잤거든요 = (Because) I didn't have much sleep last night.
- 되게 신나 보여요 = You look very excited!
- 예, 내일 홍콩으로 여행 가거든요 = Yeah, (because) I'm going on a trip to Hong Kong tomorrow!
새 (a simplified form of 새로운) = new
사다 = buy
샀다 = bought
샀네요 = (hey, you) bought
노트북 = laptop (literally, notebook)
느리다 = slow
느렸다 = was slow
그래 = ok, yeah
잠 = sleep (noun)
자다 = sleep (verb)
잤다 = slept
피곤하다 = tired
피곤해 보이다 = look tired
되게 = very
신나다 = excited
홍콩 = Hong Kong
여행 가다 = go on a trip