Imperatives - 해, 하지마
The informal form is used among very close friends or when talking to a younger person who is very close to you in informal situations.
The formal form and the honorific form are used in formal situations. However, if I were to choose which one to use, I would choose the honorific form because the formal form is a bit casual-ish. It is safe to use the honorific form if you are unsure which one to use.
Note: The honorific form of verbs is present in Korean such as:
먹다 → 드시다 = eat
자다 → 주무시다 = sleep
죽다 → 돌아가시다 = die, pass away
먹어's honorific form is 드세요. It is usually used when talking to people above your age or in formal situations.
Informal positive (Imperative) = Present positive (spoken Korean)
- 해! = Do!
- 저리 가! = Go over there! (Leave me alone!)
- 이 과자 좀 먹어. = Eat some of these snacks.
- 물 좀 마셔. = Drink some water.
Informal negative = Take 다 off a plain form of verbs and attach 지마 to it.
- 가지마! = Don't go!
- 이 영화는 보지마! = Don't watch this movie!
- 이거는 먹지마. = Don't eat this.
- 이 책은 읽지마. = Don't read this book.
Formal positive and negative = Attach 요 to informal forms
Honorific positive =
1. Take 다 off a plain form of verbs and then attach 세요 to verbs without a final consonant.
2. Attach 으세요 to verbs with a final consonant.
3. For verbs with a final consonant of ㄹ, drop it off and attach 세요 to it.
- 가세요! = Please go!
- 이리 오세요. = Please come here.
- 빨리 떠나세요! = Please leave quickly!
- 어서 드세요. = Please eat already.
- 물고기 손으로 잡으세요. = Please catch the fish with your hands.
- 손 흔드세요! = Please wave your hands! (흔들다 = wave)
- 빙글빙글 도세요! = Please turn round and round! (돌다 = turn round, spin)
Honorific negative = Take 다 off a plain form of verbs and attach 지마세요.
- 장난 하지 마세요! = Please don't fool around!
- 저 곳에는 가지 마세요. = Please don't go to that place. (Keep away from that place.)
- 박물관에 있는 물건들은 만지지 마세요. = Please don't touch things in the museum.