Have to - 해야 한다

Have to - 해야 한다


Informal form

Informal
Have to
Had to
Written
해야 한다
해야 된다
해야 했다
해야 됐다
Spoken
해야 해
해야 돼
해야 했어
해야 됐어

Informal
Don't have to
Didn't have to
Written
하지 않아도 된다
하지 않아도 됐다
Spoken
하지 않아도 돼
안해도 돼
하지 않아도 됐어
안해도 됐어


Note: The words in bold are the more commonly used alternative of the two in each box.

Rules
1. Attach 야 한다/야 된다/야 돼/야 됐어 etc. to the informal spoken form of verbs. Verbs - Present, Past
  • 해 → 해야 한다 = have to do
  • 가 → 가야 한다 = have to go
  • 와 → 와야 한다 = have to come
  • 봐 → 봐야 한다 = have to see
  • 먹어 → 먹어야 한다 = have to eat
  • 마셔 → 마셔야 한다 = have to drink
2. Take 다 off a plain form of verbs and then attach 지 않아도 된다/지 않아도 됐다/지 않아도 돼 etc. to it.
  • 하다 → 하지 않아도 된다 = don't have to do
  • 가다 → 가지 않아도 된다 = don't have to go
  • 오다 → 오지 않아도 된다 = don't have to come
  • 보다 → 보지 않아도 된다 = don't have to see
  • 먹다 → 먹지 않아도 된다 = don't have to eat
  • 마시다 → 마시지 않아도 된다 = don't have to drink
3. Attach 안 and 도 돼/ 도 됐었어 to the front and back of the informal spoken form of verbs respectively. Verbs - Present, Past
  • 안해도 돼 = don't have to do
  • 안가도 돼 = don't have to go
  • 안와도 돼 = don't have to come
  • 안봐도 돼 = don't have to see
  • 안먹어도 돼 = don't have to eat
  • 안마셔도 돼 = don't have to drink


Example sentences
Written Form
  • 성민은 오늘 서울에 가야 한다. = Seong-min has to go to Seoul today.
  • 민주는 내일 학교에 가지 않아도 된다. = Min-ju doesn't have to go to school tomorrow.
  • 애쉴리는 병때문에 작년 매일 약을 먹어야 했다 = Because of her sickness, Ashley had to take (lit. eat) medicine everyday last year.
Spoken Form
  • 이번 주 목요일까지 과학 과제 끝내야 돼 = I have to finish the science assignment by this Thursday.
  • 애쉴리는 이제 다 나아서 병원에 안가도 돼 = Because Ashley has been healed now, she doesn't have go to the hospital.
  • 고추가 너무 매우면 안먹어도 돼 = If the chillies are too spicy, you don't have to eat them.


Formal form

Formal
Have to
Had to
Written
해야 합니다
해야 됩니다
해야 했습니다
해야 됐습니다
Spoken
해야 해요
해야 돼요
해야 했어요
해야 됐어요

Formal
Don't have to
Didn't have to
Written
하지 않아도 됩니다
안해도 됩니다
하지 않아도 됐습니다
안해도 됐습니다.
Spoken
하지 않아도 돼요
안해도 돼요
하지 않아도 됐어요
안해도 됐어요


Note: The rules for the conjugation are the same as above.


Example sentences
Written Form
  • 성민은 오늘 서울에 가야 합니다. = Seong-min has to go to Seoul today.
  • 민주는 내일 학교에 가지 않아도 됩니다. = Min-ju doesn't have to go to school tomorrow.
  • 애쉴리는 병때문에 작년 매일 약을 먹어야 했습니다 = Because of her sickness, Ashley had to take (lit. eat) medicine everyday last year.
Spoken Form
  • 이번 주 목요일까지 과학 과제 끝내야 돼요 = I have to finish the science assignment by this Thursday.
  • 애쉴리는 이제 다 나아서 병원에 안가도 돼요 = Because Ashley has been healed now, she doesn't have go to the hospital.
  • 고추가 너무 매우면 안먹어도 돼요 = If the chillies are too spicy, you don't have to eat them.
Source: Learn Korean: LP's Korean Grammar Guide

8 comments:

  1. 해야 돼어요 is listed under "Had to" Formal from. is there no ㅆ?

    ReplyDelete
  2. Well spotted, thanks for the correction. :)

    ReplyDelete
  3. I think the past tense in the tables got some thing wrong.됐었어요 and 됐었습니다 should be without 었, right?

    ReplyDelete
  4. It should be "Because Ashley is feeling better, she doesn't have to go to the hospital" not "Because Ashley has been healed now, she doesn't have go to the hospital." (You don't need to say 'now' because when you say you are feeling better there is an implied 'now' because you were feeling worse before.)

    ReplyDelete
  5. I see what you mean. Although your translation is a paraphrase and doesn't quite mean what it's saying in Korean.

    My translation is literal so 이제 다 나아서 literally means "now healed/cured (completely)"

    이제 = now
    다 = all, completely
    낫다 = be healed/cured

    For "I'm feeling better," I'd say "(좀/많이) 좋아졌어."

    ReplyDelete
  6. hi luke, why is it 나아서 instead of 낫아서?
    감사합니다! :)

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. The present tense of 낫다 in spoken Korean is 나아. And 서 is attached 나아 to become 나아서.

      Other examples would be like:

      가다 → 가 → 가서 (because (I/he/she/they) go(es))
      오다 → 와 → 와서 (because (I/he/she/they) come(s))
      사다 → 사 → 사서 (because (I/he/she/they) buy(s))

      낫다 → 나아 → 나아서 (because (I/he/she/they) am/is/are cured)

      Delete

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