Verbs - Descriptive Form I

Verbs - Descriptive Form I

The descriptive form I of verbs takes the meaning of "~ing." (ie. Continuous), or is used as a present tense clause involving "which, that, who etc.".


Written Form
Plain
Descriptive I
Positive
달리다
달리는
Negative
달리지 않다
달리지 않는

The Table of Common Verbs and Their Descriptive Forms I
Written Form
Plain Descriptive I
Run
달리다
달리는
Eat
먹다
먹는
Go
가다
가는
Stand
서다
서는
Come
오다
오는
Sit
앉다
앉는
Buy
사다
사는
Sell
팔다
파는
Grow
자라다
자라는
Throw
던지다
던지는
Borrow
빌리다
빌리는
Lend
빌려주다
빌려주는
Play
놀다
노는
Write
쓰다
쓰는
Read
읽다
읽는
Listen to
듣다
듣는
Live
살다
사는
Die
죽다
죽는


These descriptive forms I are used in front of nouns to describe them, and form a present tense clause involving "who, which, that" of English. For example, the descriptive form I of 가다 is 가는 and 가는 기차 means a "train which goes". Literally, 가는 means "going" therefore 가는 기차 = a going train.

● Rules 

First, take 다 off a verb and then, 

1. add 는

Eg.
  • 먹다 → 먹는 = eating
  • 사과 먹는 난쟁이 → a dwarf who eats an apple (= Lit. an apple-eating dwarf)
  • 잠자다 → 잠자는 = sleeping
  • 잠자는 공주 → a princess who sleeps (= Lit. A sleeping princess)
  • 죽다 → 죽는 = dying
  • 죽는 병사 → a soldier who is dying (= Lit. a dying soldier)
  • 믿다 → 믿지 않는 = not believing/unbelieving
  • 믿지 않는 토마스 → Thomas who does not believe (= Lit. unbelieving Thomas)
2. Take ㄹ off a verb with a final consonant, ㄹ and add 는.

Eg.
  • 팔다 → 파는 = selling
  • 골동품 파는 가게 → A shop which sells antiques (= Lit. An antique-selling shop)
  • 살다 → 사는
  • 사는 곳 → A place where I'm living (= Lit. A living place)

More examples
  • 사막에서 자라는 선인장 = A cactus which grows in the desert (= Lit. A desert-growing cactus)
  • 내가 읽는 책은 다 유익하다. = All the books that I read are informative.

12 comments:

  1. hi luke,

    how can you make difference between active and passive?
    for example

    믿지 않는 토마스..
    thomas who does not belive

    but how do you know thomas is the one who doesn't belive instead of not being belived by other people?

    has it to do with the context??
    please let me know.

    and thanks a lot for this site and all your efforts, it's really usefull!

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Cailin,

      If you wanted to say "Thomas who people don't believe" then it would be 사람들이 믿어주지 않는 토마스.

      But you could also say, "사람들이 믿지 않는 토마스."

      But, "믿지 않는 토마스" by itself would mean, "Thomas who does not believe."

      Cheers.

      Delete
  2. Gah this is so helpful thank you so much!!!!

    ReplyDelete
  3. The title of this page is confusing.

    a "descriptive verb" in Korean is an adjective ...


    however, all your "descriptive form" examples are *verbs* ...

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Joseph,

      I meant verbs in Korean can be used as adjectives when they are conjugated like the ones above.

      Adjectives can be used as verbs as well, as adjectives in Korean can be conjugated to different tenses and forms.

      Delete
  4. There are two types of Korean verbs. Korean action verbs (AV) and Korean descripive verbs (AD). A korean verb used as an awith VSTEM + 은 must be a descriptive verb. You mention 하다, 쓰다, etc. Your rule to add 는 to modify is the rule to use with action verbs. However, to make an adjective of a DV you add 은. To avoid confusion with the 'description' of the DV they call your “descriptive form“ ... ”modifying form”. yes, AV and DV both can modify, but the grammar is different

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. I've divided the Descriptive forms of verbs into I & II to avoid using jargons.

      Descriptive form I (는) = continuing action

      Descriptive form II (은) = finished/completed action

      Delete
    2. Descriptive Form I (는) == continuing action (for verbs only)

      Descriptive Form II (은) == finished/completed action (for verbs), or continuing action (for adjectives)

      other possible titles
      ----------------------
      는: present tense for verbs
      은: past tense for verbs, present tense for adjectives

      Delete
    3. Thanks for your input, Joseph.

      But I think I'll leave them as they are for now to avoid further confusion if I change the titles again.

      Delete
  5. Like always your blog is a lifesaver, thank you Luke. I wish you a happy end of 2012 and plenty of happiness and wellbeing for the coming year.

    /Emelie

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Thanks a lot Emelie,

      Happy New Year to you too!!

      Blessings to you this new year 2013!

      Delete

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