Verbs - Descriptive Form II

Verbs - Descriptive Form II

The descriptive form II of verbs takes the meaning of "~ed." (ie. past tense) or is used as a past tense clause involving "who, which, that etc.".


Written Form
Plain
Descriptive II
Positive
달리다
달린
Negative
달리지 않다
달리지 않은
 
The Table of Common Verbs and Their Descriptive Forms II

Written Form
Plain Descriptive II
Run
달리다
달린
Eat
먹다
먹은
Go
가다
Stand
서다
Come
오다
Sit
앉다
앉은
Buy
사다
Sell
팔다
Grow
자라다
자란
Throw
던지다
던진
Borrow
빌리다
빌린
Lend
빌려주다
빌려준
Play
놀다
Write
쓰다
Read
읽다
읽은
Listen to
듣다
들은
Live
살다
Die
죽다
죽은
 
Verbs can be used in front of nouns to describe them, and form a past tense clause involving "who, which, that" of English. For example, the descriptive form II of 떠나다 is 떠난 and 떠난 기차 means a "train which left". Literally, 떠난 means "left" therefore 떠난 기차 = a left train

● Rules 

First, take 다 off a verb and then, 

1. For verbs with a final consonant, add 은

Eg.
  • 먹다 → 먹은 = ate
  • 사과 먹은 난쟁이 → a dwarf who ate an apple
  • 죽다 → 죽은 = died/dead
  • 죽은 병사 → a dead soldier (= a soldier who died)
  • 믿다 → 믿지 않은 = disbelieved
  • 믿지 않은 토마스 → Thomas who disbelieved
  • 읽다 → 읽은 = read (past tense)
  • 읽은 기사 → an article that I read 

2. For verbs without a final consonant and verbs with ㄹ as a final consonant, replace it with ㄴ as a final consonant.

Eg.
  • 빌리다 → 빌린 = borrowed
  • 빌린 책 → a book which I borrowed (Lit. a borrowed book)
  • 쓰다 →쓴 = wrote
  • 성루까가 쓴 복음 = the gospel which St. Luke wrote
  • 멈추다 → 멈춘 = stopped
  • 버스가 멈춘 곳 = a place where the bus stopped

Sentences: Negatives
  • 기다리다 → 기다리지 않은 = didn't wait
  • 주님을 기다리지 않은 하인 → a servant who didn't wait for the Lord
  • 먹다 → 먹지않은 = didn't eat
  • 음식을 먹지 않은 개 = a dog who didn't eat food
  • 포기하다 → 포기하지 않은 = didn't give up
  • 끝까지 포기하지 않은 욥 = Job who didn't give up till the end

7 comments:

  1. "끝까지 포기하지 않은 욥 = Job who didn't give up till the end "

    the english doesn't make sense to me. Is it a job (career) that you didn't quit? or is it a job (task) that you didn't give up on?

    help please :P

    ReplyDelete
  2. Job is a personal name.
    Job is a man who appears in the book of Job in the Old Testament of the Bible.

    Job was stricken with a disease and he suffered greatly under the God's hand.

    However, Job did not give up on God till God met him and healed him.

    ReplyDelete
  3. In some song lyrics it says, "사랑하는 나의 공주 stay with me"
    Does this mean "my loving princess" or "my loved (dear?) princess"? According to these blog posts it should be the first one but my gut tells me it's the second one xD

    ReplyDelete
  4. could you please explain the difference between 입는 and 입은?

    ReplyDelete
  5. Hi Anonymous,

    Yes.

    The difference between 입는 and 입은 is that:

    입는 = wear/wearing

    입은 = wore/worn

    내가 요즘 입는 코트가 이거야. = The coat that I wear/am wearing these days is this.

    내가 어제 입은 코트가 이거야. = The coat that I wore yesterday was this.

    So for further examples:

    파란 티셔츠 입는 토마스 = Thomas who wears a blue T-shirt.

    파란 티셔츠 입은 토마스 = Thomas who wore a blue T-shirt.

    떡볶이 먹는 주디 = Judie who eats hot & spicy rice cake.

    떡볶이 먹은 주디 = Judie who ate Korean hot & spicy rice cakes.

    As you can see, verb + 는 describes the person/object in a present tense,

    whereas verb + 은 describes something in a past tense.

    ReplyDelete
  6. Hi Luke, can you help me to translate this long sentence

    "거위들이 그릇에 담겨 있는 먹이를 입에 머물고 연못 속 물고기에게 나눠주는 모습"

    I think that this sentence mean "Geese puts the food inside the container(plate) to its mouth(beak) and distribute the food to fish inside a pond...."

    The word that make me confuse is
    "나눠주는 모습"
    from what i know "모습" means figure/appearance...
    but when i put it all together, it doesn't make sense to me..so could help me translate this sentence please.. :)

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi, WenTa,

      나눠주는 모습 means 'the image/form/appearance of distributing.'

      거위들이 나눠주는 모습 would be 'the image/form/appearance of geese distributing.'

      The meaning of the full sentence, '거위들이 그릇에 담겨 있는 먹이를 입에 머물고 연못 속 물고기에게 나눠주는 모습.'

      'The image/form/appearance of geese putting the food inside the container(plate) to its mouth(beak) and distribute the food to fish inside a pond....'

      Cheers

      Delete

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