Additive Particle - 도

도 [Additive Particle]

Please refer to Korean Listening Exercise - Additive Particle 도 for the audio recording of the sentences found in this lesson.

The additive particle, 도, is similar to subject particles 는/은 and 가/이 in that it is used for a subject (or topic). However, 도 adds the meaning of 'too' or 'also' to a subject.

Here are example sentences:

  • 나도 학생이다 = I am a student, too
  • 그도 친절하다 = He is kind, too
  • 이것도 연필이다 = This is a pencil, too
  • 하늘도 높다 = The sky is high, too
  • 그녀도 공부한다 = She studies, too
  • 존도 갔다 = John went, too
  • 영수도 먹었다 = Young-su ate, too

As a further explanation, please have a look at the following example:
  • 다윗은 왕이었다 = David was a king
  • 솔로몬도 왕이었다 = Solomon was a king, too

도 always refers to the subject. For example, 솔로몬도 왕이었다 describes Solomon in terms of the fact that he was a king, too. Not only was David a king but Solomon was also a king.

다윗 = David
왕 = a king
솔로몬 = Solomon

Here is another example,
  • 제니는 나갔어 = Jenny went outside
  • 유리도 나갔어 = Yuri went outside, too
제니 = Jenny
나가다 = go outside, leave
유리 = Yuri

As you can see, 도 is used when one wants talk about the same quality or description about a different subject.

When we want to talk about additive qualities and/or descriptions about the same subject, 또한 is used.

For example,
  • 다윗은 양치기였다 = David was a shepherd.
  • 다윗은 또한 왕이었다 = David was also a king.

The two sentences above both describe a certain thing about the same subject, 다윗, and 또한 refers to the rest of the sentence rather than the subject. 또한 왕이었다 describes a fact that David "was also a king." Therefore David was both a shepherd and king.

또한 is used to give an additive quality or description about the same subject.

Here is one more example,
  • 제니는 대학생이다 = Jenny is a college (university) student
  • 제니는 또한 음악 선생님이다 = Jenny is also a music teacher

Jenny is both a college student and music teacher.

Note: In spoken Korean, 또 is usually used instead of 또한.
  • 제니는 대학생이야 = Jenny is a college (university) student
  • 제니는 또 음악 선생님이야 = Jenny is also a music teacher

Continue to the next section:

37 comments:

  1. Hi, thanks for this guide it was very helpful. However I have a question, in
    '준수는 2000년도 여름에 호주에 왔다 = Jun-su came to Australia in summer 2000. [Jun-su, in 2000, in summer, to Australia, came] '

    2000년도, what does the 도 stands for in this case, I thought it was a additive particle?

    Many thanks! :)

    ReplyDelete
  2. Hi Bryan,

    년 or 년도 means "year"
    2000년도, therefore, means "the year 2000"

    Both of these sentences mean the same.
    준수는 2000년도 여름에 호주에 왔다
    준수는 2000년 여름에 호주에 왔다

    ReplyDelete
  3. In this case, 도 is not a particle! The original meaning of 도 here actually means "degree" and 년 means "year"


    If I put the nuance/feeling to them,

    2010년 = in 2010
    2010년도 = in the year 2010

    So roughly speaking, 년도 tends to sound a bit more formal.

    Hope this helps. :)

    ReplyDelete
  4. hey there, was wondering if u could explain this to me...
    this sentence uses 에 but it has nothing to do with time or place...why is that?
    반말 쓰는 것에 익숙했어
    and this sentence uses 이...
    매운 음식을 먹는 것이 어려워요
    what's the difference between 것에 and 것이...and when to use them?
    thanks~

    ReplyDelete
  5. Hi 시야,

    First of all,

    반말 쓰는 것 means "Using an informal language"

    This phrase has been nominalised.

    For example,

    쓰는 것 = using/writing
    먹는 것 = eating
    마시는 것 = drinking

    익숙했어 means "I'm used (to it)" 익숙해졌어 is probably more colloquial.

    And 에, in this case, functions like "to"

    Therefore,

    반말 쓰는 것에 익숙했어 means:
    I'm used to using an informal language.

    에 and 익숙해졌어 usually go together. It'd be easier to think of it as a phrase.(~ 에 익숙해졌어.)

    매운 음식 먹는 것에 익숙해졌어 = I got used to eating spicy food.


    Also,

    매운 음식을 먹는 것이 어려워요.

    매운 음식을 먹는 것 means "eating spicy food"

    이 functions as an identifier particle.

    어려워요 means "difficult"

    Therefore,

    매운 음식을 먹는 것이 어려워요. means "Eating spicy food is difficult."

    But you could also use 은, i.e.

    매운 음식을 먹는 것은 어려워요.
    = "Eating spicy food is difficult."

    이 and 은 are both subject particles but their difference is subtle.

    For more explanation, please refer to "Particles - 는, 가"

    ReplyDelete
  6. thanks alot for the detail explanation~! im studying korean by myself through internet videos and blogs...really thankful to have someone that could help me understand the language more...thanks!! =D

    ReplyDelete
  7. Hi Luke.

    I've been searching online guides to learn Korean Language and I found your site is really helpful and easy to understand.

    Thank you very much for all your effort...

    ReplyDelete
  8. hi luke .

    im really thankful for your effort of making this one .

    and i just have a one question..

    what is the use of "deul" in a sentence?
    i read it in a lyrics and it was like

    "Saranghaneun Saramdeul"

    im really confused here...thanks in advance..

    ReplyDelete
  9. hi luke ..

    i just have one question here..

    what is the used of "deul" in a sentence?
    is it a particle too?

    thanks in advance...

    ReplyDelete
  10. Hi YoungMinLuv

    들 is like 's' that is used for nouns to make them plural.

    For example,

    새 = a bird
    새들 = birds

    집 = a house
    집들 = houses

    ReplyDelete
  11. Hi Luke,

    Just wanted to say that your articles are amazingly helpful! Thanks a lot!

    ReplyDelete
  12. This is so helpful, I have been asking so many Koreans to explain things like particles to me but I never seem to understand what they're for. This is perfect, KAMSAHAMNIDA:)))

    ReplyDelete
  13. Hi Luke~~!!

    your blog is really helpful!!
    I want to ask you, if i want to say "birds fly too!", in written korean it could be something like "새들도 난다!"??

    ReplyDelete
  14. Hi 안디!

    Yes, that's exactly right! :-)

    ReplyDelete
  15. Hi Luke,

    Can You explain to me why >>>
    쓰는 것 = using/writing
    먹는 것 = eating
    마시는 것 = drinking
    ==================================
    쓰는 = using/writing
    먹는 = eating
    마시는 = drinking

    Isnt it the same meaning?
    So what is the meaning of the word컷...?
    And how to use the word 컷...?

    please help me! Thank YOu

    ReplyDelete
  16. Hi Fishy Fish,

    The difference between 먹는 것 and 먹는 is that 먹는 것 is a noun, while 먹는 is an adjective.

    For example,

    먹는 것(noun) = something we eat, eating
    것 = thing

    감자는 먹는 것이다 = A potato is something we eat.

    먹는 것이 좋아요 = Eating is good (or I like eating)

    And,

    먹는(adjective)

    거리에 솜사탕을 먹는 사람들이 많았다 = There were many people who were eating "cotton candy" on the street.

    솜사탕을 먹는 사람들 = people who were eating cotton candy (or Lit. "Cotton candy"-eating people)

    빵조각을 먹는 참새 = a sparrow eating bread crumbs. (or Lit. bread crumbs-eating sparrow.)

    Please refer to

    ● Verbs - Descriptive I

    for more information. :)

    ReplyDelete
  17. THANK YOU SO MUCH LUKE !

    LOve Your BLog ! >< IT's AWESOME ! AND IT Help's Me ALot :D

    ReplyDelete
  18. You're welcome! Help yourself! :-)

    ReplyDelete
  19. Hey Luke!

    I was just wondering something about the additive particle. In these sentences you include the subject particle after Jenny's name but not for David:

    다윗은 양치기였다 = David was a shepherd.
    다윗은 또한 왕이었다 = David was also a king.

    제니는 대학생이다 = Jenny is a college (university) student
    제니는 또한 음악 선생님이다 = Jenny is also a music teacher

    Why? Are there any specific rules here - is it OK to drop the subject particle and replace it with the additive one, or are we supposed to put the subject and additive particle together? Please can you explain this a bit more?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi MYDEARCHOPSTICKS,

      As far as I can see, both 다윗(David) and 제니(Jenny) have subject particles, i.e. 은 & 는.

      When you use the additive particle, 도, the subject particle, 는/은 is missed out, yes.

      This is a very late reply, sorry!

      But if you happen to read this comment, there you go!

      Delete
  20. Sorry, I meant these sentences as examples where the subject particle is missed out for my last comment!

    나도 학생이다 = I am a student, too
    그도 친절하다 = He is kind, too

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi MYDEARCHOPSTICKS,

      Please refer to the comment above,

      Cheers

      Delete
  21. Hello,
    Question about this sentence:

    샘은 작년 10월 가을에 한국에 갔다 = Sam went to Korea last year in October during the autumn season [Sam, last year, in October, in Autumn, to Korea, went]

    Do I add 에 only to the last word that relates to time or place in a sequence?
    For example you didn't add 에 to 작년 (last year) and 10월 (October), but I think they describe time as well.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Gregos,

      Yes, 에 have been omitted in this long sequence.

      I haven't noticed this before, but it seems when you list "times," you only need to put 에 once to the last "time" in a sequence.

      한국 is a place so it doesn't count.

      For example,

      샘은 작년에 갔다.
      샘은 작년에 한국에 갔다.
      샘은 10월에 한국에 갔다.
      샘은 작년 10월에 한국에 갔다.
      샘은 작년 10월 가을에 갔다.
      샘은 작년 10월 가을에 한국에 갔다.
      샘은 작년 10월 17일 가을에 갔다.
      샘은 작년 10월 17일 가을에 한국에 갔다.

      Delete
  22. Another question: How do I say, for example, "He saw people"?
    Do I need to add both plural particle 들 and object particle 을 to 사람?
    Like: 그는 사람들을 보았다 - He people saw.
    Or 그는 사과들을 먹었다 - He apples ate

    Is that correct? Both necessary? Or there's maybe other way, that could be easier to pronounce, than "deureul" (들을)? :)

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Gregos,

      You got it quite right.
      들을 is used when it's plural.

      Also, 들을 is pronounced like 드를.

      Delete
  23. Hi! I'm new here and I have to say, your website is really helpful to me! ^^
    Thank you for your awesome explanations~!
    But I have one doubt. On the Super Junior song "너 같은 사람 또 없어", this "또" means too/also?
    Is it "Like you, person, too, doesn't have?"
    I confess I'm a little bit confused about this sentence.

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi Anonymous,

      너 같은 사람 또 없어 means "There's no other person like you."

      또 means "again, once more, also"

      So, 너 같은 사람 또 없어 can be literally translated to "there cannot be a person like you again/once more."

      Hope this helps with your confusion.
      Cheers.

      Delete
  24. Hi Luke,

    For the example
    준수는 5월에 왔다 and
    샘 은 작년 10월 가을에 한국에 갔다

    10월 has no 에 particle as 5월에 where both are refers to date.

    Can you explain when we need to put 에 and when we can ignore it?
    Thanks a lot

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Please refer to my reply to Gregos above.
      Cheers.

      Delete
  25. Hey , thanks a lot for your blog.. I am an absolute beginner, yet I find this blog very comprehensive ..

    ReplyDelete
  26. Hello! I'm using your blog and it's really helping me to learn Korean! I have a question for this part of the blog.
    In the sentence 공원에서 놀았다 if I want to use "I", where I need to put it, at the first place or after the place where I did something? Or can be used in both ways? So which one is the correct:
    나는 공원에서 놀았다
    or
    공원에서 나는 놀았다
    I'm asking it, because you order in like this in you example:
    [At the park, (we) played (had fun)]

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi d3Mn,

      Both of them are correct.

      In Korean, there's a bit of flexibility with the sentence order.

      In spoken Korean, you could even say,

      공원에서 놀았어. 나는 = Played at the park. As for me.

      Delete
  27. Hi Luke
    I really appreciate your help, This is very useful
    I have a question
    Is it ok to use "에" two times in the same sentence?

    ReplyDelete
    Replies
    1. Hi JP (장피에르),

      에 can be used in the same sentence.

      For example,

      샘은 10월에 한국에 갔다 = Sam went to Korea in October.

      However, if you want to include two places in a same sentence, 와/과 is used in Written Korean, and 하고/고 in Spoken Korean.

      For example,
      샘은 서울과 부산에 갔다 = Sam went to Seoul and Busan (written Korean)

      샘은 서울하고 부산에 갈거야 = Sam will go to Seoul and Busan.

      Hope this helps with your question. :-)

      Delete
  28. Wow this is very organized. thanks a lot for this.very helpful :D

    ReplyDelete

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