도 [Additive Particle]
Please refer to Korean Listening Exercise - Additive Particle 도 for the audio recording of the sentences found in this lesson.
The additive particle, 도, is similar to subject particles 는/은 and 가/이 in that it is used for a subject (or topic). However, 도 adds the meaning of 'too' or 'also' to a subject.
Here are example sentences:
- 나도 학생이다 = I am a student, too
- 그도 친절하다 = He is kind, too
- 이것도 연필이다 = This is a pencil, too
- 하늘도 높다 = The sky is high, too
- 그녀도 공부한다 = She studies, too
- 존도 갔다 = John went, too
- 영수도 먹었다 = Young-su ate, too
As a further explanation, please have a look at the following example:
- 다윗은 왕이었다 = David was a king
- 솔로몬도 왕이었다 = Solomon was a king, too
도 always refers to the subject. For example, 솔로몬도 왕이었다 describes Solomon in terms of the fact that he was a king, too. Not only was David a king but Solomon was also a king.
다윗 = David
왕 = a king
솔로몬 = Solomon
Here is another example,
- 제니는 나갔어 = Jenny went outside
- 유리도 나갔어 = Yuri went outside, too
나가다 = go outside, leave
유리 = Yuri
As you can see, 도 is used when one wants talk about the same quality or description about a different subject.
When we want to talk about additive qualities and/or descriptions about the same subject, 또한 is used.
- 다윗은 양치기였다 = David was a shepherd.
- 다윗은 또한 왕이었다 = David was also a king.
The two sentences above both describe a certain thing about the same subject, 다윗, and 또한 refers to the rest of the sentence rather than the subject. 또한 왕이었다 describes a fact that David "was also a king." Therefore David was both a shepherd and king.
또한 is used to give an additive quality or description about the same subject.
Here is one more example,
- 제니는 대학생이다 = Jenny is a college (university) student
- 제니는 또한 음악 선생님이다 = Jenny is also a music teacher
Jenny is both a college student and music teacher.
Note: In spoken Korean, 또 is usually used instead of 또한.
- 제니는 대학생이야 = Jenny is a college (university) student
- 제니는 또 음악 선생님이야 = Jenny is also a music teacher
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